Juan Vasquez
c.1510 - 1560
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J. Vasquez
Juan Vasquez (ca.1510 - 1560), a Spanish composer; born Badajoz, Spain, died in Sevilla, Spain. He was from Estremadura, and served as Master of the Chapel of the Cathedral of Badajoz.
Author:Todd M. McComb
Juan Vásquez (ca.1510 - 1560), a Spanish composer. He was probably born in Badajos in about 1500 and died in Sevilla 1560. He grown up in Badajos and studied in Sevilla. Around 1530, he is in the chapel of the Badajoz Cathedral a choirboy, and more later teacher of the boy singers and Cantor of the Badajoz cathedral. In 1539 he worked in the Cathedral of Palencia in Burgos, where he became known as a composer. He has to be considered a member of the School of Andalusia ( Guerrero, de Morales, Navarro, Castilleja, Vásquez ). Later in 1545 he returned to his native city as Maestro di Capilla of the Badajoz Cathedral. He did not stay there very long because in 1551 he served already the Andalusian House of Zúñiga.Vásquez published three titles: Villancicos y canciones a tres y a cuatro (Villancicos and songs for three and four voices) in 1551; Villancicos y canciones a tres y a cuatro (Villancicos and songs for three and four voices) in Sevilla; and Agenda Defunctorum (Office of the Dead) written and published in Sevilla in 1556. In 1560 all his secular compositions were published in Recopilatión de sonetos y villancicos.
Author:Wim Goossens
Requiem aeternam
Period:High Renaissance
Composed in:1550c
Musical form:motet
Text/libretto:Latin mass
Label(s):Virgin 5 455203 2
Requiem aeternam, a motet, from the album: All souls' vespers (cd: Virgin 5 455203 2).
Missa defunctorum
Period:High Renaissance
Composed in:1556
Musical form:mass
Text/libretto:Latin mass
Label(s):Almaviva DS-0122
The Office for the Dead is very highly regarded for its contemplative qualities, standing well alongside Vásquez' elegantly simple songs which have more reputation today. The service seems to follow the example of Morales closely, and indeed both were written for Seville. The polyphonic requiem flourished with a particular intensity on the Iberian peninsula. The first extant Iberian setting, by Pedro Escobar, existed by about 1520.
Author:Todd M. McComb
Vásquez's setting (published in 1556) is remarkable for being part of a complete Agenda defunctorum that included Matins and Lauds in addition to the more usual Vespers and Mass. In the first publication, the original Sevillan chants appear alongside their polyphonic elaborations. It was in Spain and Portugal that the tradition of stile antico requiem settings had the greatest longevity, its ramifications extending well into the next century (as with Victoria's setting), and, through the colonial possessions of both countries, into new continents as well.
Author:Steven Chang-Lin Yu
Agenda Defunctorum (Sevilla 1556) contains:
- Ad matutimum
- Ad laudes
- Ad missam
- Absolutio pro defunctis
This Officium Defunctorum Ad matutinum and Missae pro Defunctis contain:

1.Invitatorium: Regem cui omnia vivunt.

In primo nocturno
2. Antiphona: Dirige, Domine.
Salmo: Verba mea auribus percipe. Canto Gregoriano
3. Antiphona: Convertere, Domine.
Salmo: Domine ne in furore tuo. Canto Gregoriano
Salmo: Domine deus meus. Canto Gregoriano
4. Antiphona: Nequando rapiat.
5. Lectio I: Parce mihi Domine.
Responsio: Credo quod Redemptor meus. Canto Gregoriano
6. Lectio II: Taedet animam meam vitae meae.
Responsio: Qui Lazarum. Canto Gregoriano
7. Lectio III: Manus tuae, Domine, fecerunt me.
Responsio:Domine, quando veneris. Canto Gregoriano

In secundo nocturno
8. Antiphona: In Loco pascuae.
Salmo: Dominus regit me Canto Gregoriano
9. Antiphona: Delicta.
Salmo: Ad te Domine levavi Canto Gregoriano
10. Antiphona: Credo videre.
Salmo: Dominus illumination mea. Canto Gregoriano
11.Lectio IV: Responde mihi.
Responsio: Heu mihi Domine. Canto Gregoriano
Lectio V: Homo natus
Responsio: Ne recorderis. Canto Gregoriano
Lectio VI: Quis mihi hoc tribuat.
Responsio: Libera me Domine de viis Canto Gregoriano

In tertio nocturno
12. Antiphona: Complaceat tibi.
Salmo: Exspectans expectavi Canto Gregoriano
13. Antihpona: Sana, Domine.
Salmo: Sana Domine. Canto Gregoriano
14. Antiphona: Sitivit anima mea.
Salmo: Quem admodum desiderat Canto Gregoriano
15. Lectio VII: Spiritus meus.
Responsio: Peccantem me quotidine Canto Gregoriano
Lectio XIII: Pelli meae.
Responso: Memento mei Canto Gregoriano
Lectio IX:
16. Responsorium: Libera me, Domine.

Ad Laudes
Cinco antifonas con sus salmas Canto Gregoriano
Antifona ad Benedictus:
Ego sum resurrection et vita Canto Gregoriano

17.Cantium Zachariae:
Psalmus: Benedictus Dominus Deus Israel.
Versus: Et erexit cornu salutis nobis.

Absolutio pro defunctis
18. Responsorium: Requiescant in pace. Amen.

Ad missam
19. Introitus: Requiem aeternam
Psalmus: Requiem aeternam
Versus: dona eis Domine.
Psalmus: Te decet hymnus Deus in Sion.
20. Kyrie eleison. Christe eleison. Kyrie eleison.
21. Graduale: Requiem aeternam.
Psalmus: Requiem aeternam.
Versus: In memoriam aeternam. Requiem à 3 vocibus.
22. Tractus: Sicut cervus.
23. Offertorium: Domine Jesu Christe.
Psalmus ;Domine Jesu Christe.
Versus: Libera animas fidelium.
24. Sanctus y Benedictus. "
26. Agnus Dei.
27. Antiphona: Absolve, Domine.

Juan Vásquez composed his imposing Agenda defunctorum in 1556 in Sevilla. For the text Vásquez has chosen parts out of the Officium Defunctorum ad Matutinum from the Liber usualis. This work by Vásquez consists out of a six parts: Inventorium/invitatory, In Primo Nocturno/first night, In secundo Noctruno/second night, In tertio Nocturno/third night, Ad Laudes/laude, and Missae Pro Defunctis/Mass of the Dead. Not all the items published in Liber Usualis has been transferred by Vásquez but they the non used are all here added by means of Canto Gregoriano/ Gregorian chant. Out of the Liber Usualis Vásquz used in fact the Invitatory, one Psalm nr. 5, nine antiphons, five lessons, one Responsorium, the Canticum of Zacharias, the Requiescant in pace, Amen and the Missae Pro defunctis Mass of the Dead. Vásquez normally uses in most of the pieces from the Agenda Defunctorum the homophone polyphone style. Sometimes he uses the alternating plainsong and polyphony. I have indicated in the schedule above the Gregorian plainsong with "Psalmus". Vásquez has written this Agenda Defunctorum for four voices (SATB). The Canticum Zachariae is optimal for alternating use, whereby the strophe with straight numbers will be performed by several voices (SATB). The other strophe with the odd numbers and the end strophe will be sung more choraliter that means uni sono in Gregorian mode. The Responsorium Libera me, Domine is similarly written in alternating plainsong and polyphony.
We often find the Cantus Firmus in the third voice the Tenor, sometimes in the Superius ( Invitatorium, Agnus Dei) in the Altus I (Libera me Domine set for five voices (SAATB), Domine Jeus Christe) and in the Bassus ( Complaceat tibi, Sana Domine I, Sitivit).The Graduale is set for three voices (ATB).
The following part is written in clear polyphonic contrapuntal style: Lectio VII. In the Mass the Sana me Domine II and Absolve, Domine are similarly written in polyphonic contrapuntal style. One of the largest Officium Defunctorum entitled Agenda Defunctorum I ever saw. I found the excellent enlarged score by Coro de Cámara Ubisunt Espagna/Spain.