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Francisco de Garro y de Yanguas
1556 - 1623
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F. de Garro y
de Yanguas
Francisco de Garro y de Yanguas (1556 - 27/03/1623), a Spanish composer; born in Alfaro, Spain and died in Lisbon, Portugal. From 1592 he was mestre of the royal chapel in Lisbon, a post which he retained until his death.
Source:Bärenreiter's Allgemeine Enzyklopädie der Musik
Francisco de Garro (ca. 1556–1623) was born in Alfaro, Spain, and held the position of maestro de capilla (“master of the chapel”) at Sigüenza Cathedral until 1593. He then moved to the Court of Lisbon. Although there are numerous references to Garro in 16 th- and 17 th-century writings, no details concerning his life and work survive, save six letters between him and the Lisbon court regarding his employment and duties there. His two collections of liturgical works were published in Lisbon, and while there is evidence he published additional music in Castilian, Portuguese, and Latin, the 1609 volumes are his only known surviving music. His Parce mihi Domine for five voices sets a text from the Book of Job and is laid out in two clearly defined sections, the first comprised of a quietly beseeching plea for mercy, and the second a sudden flurry of activity.
Francisco Garro was born in Alfaro, Spain round 1556. The Year of birth is uncertain as so often. Garro is a Spanish composer. Little is known about his musical education. Before he went to Lisbon, Garro worked in some Cathedrals in Spain. Garro was appointed maestro de capilla at Valladolid in March 1580 but not for long, soon Garro lost that post. After that Garro was appointed maestro de capilla of Sigüenza Cathedral in 1580. In the 1590s Garro came over from Sigüenza to Lisbon, Portugal where he stayed the rest of his life. As of from the 27th of March 1592 Garro was paid as mestre de Capella Real de Lisboa, a post which Garro retained until his death. Garro succeeded in Lisbon António Carreira (ca. 1525-ca.1597) Portuguese organist and composer. Two collections of his work are published in part-books in Lisbon in 1609 and both dedicated to Philip III of Spain (1578-1621). Philip III was also King Philip II of Portugal. Unfortunately no complete set of part-books has survived. Three partial sets have been located in Coimbra, Bilblioteca Geral da Universidade; in Braga, Bibliteca Pública; and in Britsh Library London. That means as a result that only one part unfortunately is missing from each work. Several more lost works are known due through the catalogue of João IV’s library in Lisbon. We know -thanks to Dr. José Abreu - 8 Masses, 3 lectiones Pro Defunctis, 3 Alleluias verses Antiphon Asperges me, Antiphon Vidi aquam , 3 Motets In principium erat verbum, Parce mihi Domine, O Magnum misterium, and 3 psalms psalm 111 Beatus vir, 109 Dixit Dominus and 116 Laudate Dominum omnes gentes are known.
Author:Wim Goossens
Missa pro defunctis
Period:Late Renaissance
Composed in:1609
Musical form:Mass octo vocibus
Text/libretto:Latin mass
This Missa pro defunctis (1609) is for 8 voices. Musical form and text: Latin mass, complete text. His musical style belongs to late renaissance.
Source:Bärenreiter's Allgemeine Enzyklopädie der Musik
Contributor:Hermann Puchta
Francisco Garro sets this polychoral Missa Pro defunctis for two choirs S[S]AT –SATB. Unfortunately the Superius II of Choir I has been lost. The clef combination of this funeral Mass is as follows C1[]C3C4 and C1C3C4F4.

This Missa consists out of the following movements:
01. Introitus: Requiem aeternam
02. Kyrie: Kyrie, Christe, Kyrie
03. Gradual: Requiem aeternam
04. Tractus: Absolve me
05. Offertorium: Domine Jesu Christe
06. Sanctus: Sanctus & Benedictus
07. Agnus Dei: Agnus Dei I, II, III
08. Communio: Lux Aeterna

As stated before the Superius-II from choir-I has been lost. Dr. José Abreu in 2002 did a successfully try to accomplish the missing part - the Superius-II Choir-I - in the whole score. In general is remarkable not any plainchant incipit is used by Garro. Instead of that Garro sets in each movement the belonging plainchant harmonically from the beginning. It’s imposing to have an eight-part Missa Pro defunctis setting like for instance Manuel Mendes (ca.1547-1605) 8vv, Gabriel Diaz Besson (ca.1580-1638) 8vv, Frei João Fogaça 8vv, Géry de Ghersem (ca.1573-1630) 9vv, Frei Geronimo González de Mendonça 8vv, Frei Manuel Pousão 8vv, Mateo Romero (Mathieu Rosmarin, ca.1575-1647) 8vv, Duarte Lôbo -Latin: Eduardus Lupus- (c.1565 - 1646) 8vv, Lourençu João Rebelo (1610-1665) 12vv did. Dissonant, syncopation, chord-changing are used in the various movements of this Missa Pro Defunctis. The chosen combination by Garro of choirs SSAT and SATB does suggest this Mass is not written for far apart choirs like in the St. Mark in Venice. In principle the Choir-I is not harmonically independent as we will see.
Choir-I starts with the paraphrased Requiem aeternam with (Ms. 1 a-bflat-a and Ms. 3 c-d-c) and not with the plainchant incipit. Garro uses here the mensuration sign ₵ . The Polychoral homophonic treatment by Garro differs from a normal way. The two choirs don’t start together but join each other, in a sense one choir starts first being later joined by the other choir to make a full Tutti-choir. See for instance Ms. 7-8 and Ms. 16-19. Only in Ms. 30/4 the two Choirs start together in ‘et lux perpetua’. The Verses ‘Te decet hymnus’ Ms. 49 is treated the whole way harmonically and not as usually in plainchant. As from Ms. 49 The Superius-I of Choir-I quotes paraphrased the plainchant in long notes, followed by Superius-I of Choir-II Ms 59-63. Garro uses lots of closing ascending or descending eighth notes in Ms. 8; Ms. 31-32; Ms. 38; Ms. 40; Ms. 47; Ms. 69; Ms. 75. This movement consists out of 76 Measures. There is no repetition prescribed.
There is no plainchant incipit in the threefold movements, in fact the Christe flows out of the first Kyrie without any delay in Ms.18. Sometimes the belonging plainchant appears as a short or more long cantus firmus in the Kyrie in Ms. 7-9 in Sup-I of Choir-I and further in the Kyrie Ms. 36-46 in Sup-I of Choir-I. Garro uses again some closing ascending or descending eighth notes in Ms. 10-11; Ms. 39-40. The last five closing measures as from Ms. 42 are lively set with lots of eighth notes in Altus of both choirs and rhythm changing, culminating in a beautifully closing in F. This Kyrie consists out of 46 Measures.
Requiem aeternam. Before the reforms of the Council of Trent (1543-1563) there were diverse alternative texts for the Proper’s of the Mass of the Dead in use which differs per region. Nowadays and after the Council of Trente the ‘Requiem aeternam’ is in use (Liber Usualis edition 1936, p. 1808). The Gradual ‘Requiem Aeternam’ is set by Garro in polychoral homophonic style. There is no plainchant incipit. The verses ‘In memoria aeterna’ is set for four parts choir-I SSAT. Chorus-II tacet. That four-part setting is more imitative, starting with Tenor followed by Sup-I, Sup-II and Altus. Garro uses more sharps and flats. This movement has 59 Measures and is set in D-Dorian.
The Gradual and Tractus are since 1570 (Council of Trent) official part of the office of the Dead. Garro choses for the Absolve Domine. He sets this movement in a polychoral homophonic way. Garro uses more long notes in homophonic style Ms. 21-25. Throughout this movement the choirs join together to form a tutti. This short movement (Ms. 32) is written in G-Mixolydian. Garro omitted the two following and belonging verses ‘Et gratia tua’ and ‘Et lucis aeternum’.
As we saw throughout the whole Mass there is no plainchant incipit. Garro starts the movement in a polychoral but imitative way Ms. 1-4. Altus, followed by Superius I, Tenor and Superius II. Thereafter unfolds the polychoral homophonic way. In Ms. 52-53 we see for instance again closing eighth notes in Altus of Choir-I. In Ms.87 we see four ascending quarter notes (Altus Choir-I f-g-a-b) to enter in a full chord the Tutti. And in Ms. 92 Choir –II joins Choir-I up to the end in D-Dorian. Garro omitted the belonging Verse ‘Hostias et preces.’ This movement has 99 measures.
The Sanctus is set by Garro in a polychoral homophonic way. There is no plainchant incipit. Garro uses long notes with chord changing with respect to rhythm and pace. In Ms. 9 you see for example Choir-II supports in the chord Choir-I. The first Hosanna ends in D-Dorian and this Sanctus consists out of 37 measures. The Benedictus is set in homophonic style by Garro only for Choir-I, Choir-II tacet. There is no plainchant incipit in this movement. It has long notes with regularly chord-changing and syncopation. This movement ends also in D-Dorian and consists out of 32 Measures.
Agnus Dei.
The Agnus Dei is set in a polychoral homophonic way. There is no plainchant-incipit. Choir-I starts Agnus Dei-I and rhythmically writing is prominent in the polychoral works. Choir-II starts Agnus Dei-II. This movement is more a homophonic setting, with ornamented eighth notes in Ms. 47-18 and quarter notes in Altus of Choir-II. The last Agnus Dei starts again in Choir-I. In the beginning homophonic but during this last movement as from Ms. 65 to the end more rhythmically writing in both Choirs. As from Ms. 75 there are at three times ornamented eighth notes in Superius-I of Choir-I. More at the end in Altus Choir-I Ms. 82 little ornamentation and a very long ornamentation of eighth notes in Superius-I of Choir-II Ms.81-82. This movement is set in D-Dorian.
The Communio starts in a polyphonic imitative way and is contrary to other movements set for five-parts SSATB. You see here another treatment by Garro of this movement in this Mass. More syncopation and in the Superius-I of Choir-I the plainchant is paraphrased quoted throughout this whole Communio. See the special notes of the last words ‘quia pius est’( d-f-a-g-f#-g). ‘Dona eis Domine’ is set homophonic and follow the interesting chord-changing in Ms. 23-24. ‘Luceat eis’ Ms. 28 is larded with eighth notes in Tenor and Bassus. In an imitative polyphonic setting starting with ‘Cum santis tuis’ Ms. 32 -41 neared this Communio to the end. This movement is set in G-Mixolydian and consists out of 41 Measures . Garro did set the belonging Verse ‘Requiem aeternam’ with syncopation in Ms. 20-21.
This Funeral Mass follows a homophonic style with respect to rhythm and pace. The note-values are longer and there are no triple-time elements in this Missa Pro Defunctis. Of course it is a pity the Superius-II of Choir-I is missing. Dr. José Abreu wrote a reasonable substitution.
This Missa Pro defunctis is found in several part-books sources (Coimbra, Braga and London) in Missae quatuor, octonis vocibus tres, & una duodenis; defunctorum lectiones tres, octonis vocibus; tria Alleluia, octonis etiam vocibus. [Lissabon, Pieter Graesbeeck] MDCIX.
Author:Wim Goossens
3 lectiones Pro Defunctis
Period:Late Renaissance
Composed in:1609
Musical form:motet
Text/libretto:Latin Officium Defunctorum ad Matutinum
In 1609 the editor Pieter Graesbeeck published in Lisbon 3 lectiones Pro Defunctis 8vv together with the already in this website treated Missa pro defunctis 8vv. Francisco Garro sets those three lessons for two choirs [S]ATB –SATB. Unfortunately the Superius of Choir-I has been lost. The clef combination of these three lessons are as follows []C3C4F4 and C1C3C4F4. As stated before the Superius from choir-I has been lost. Dr. José Abreu in 2002 did a successfully try to accomplish that missing part - the Superius of Choir-I – in each score of these three lessons. As we know and often mentioned here, these three lessons Parce Mihi Domine (Lectio I) , Responde Mihi (Lectio IV) and Spritus meus (Lectio VII) are integral part of the Officium Defunctorum Ad Matutinum, Office of the Dead ad Matins as published in the Liber Usualis (edition 1936, p.1772-1799). At this stage we don’t know whether or not Francisco Garro set a fully Office of the Dead. In the Renaissance period more composers have set parts or the whole Officium defunctorum we mention out of the Renaissance Giosoffo Zarlino (1517-1590), Giovanni Asola (ca.1528-1609), Estêvâo de Brito (c.1570 - 1641), Lodovico da Viadana (1564 - 1627), Duarte Lôbo -Latin: Eduardus Lupus- (ca.1565 - 1646), Marco da Gagliano (1582 - 1642), Giovanni Giacomo Gastoldi (ca.1554 – 1622), Filipe de Magalhães (ca.1571 – 1652), Sebastián de Vivanco (ca.1551 - 1622), Orlandus Lassus- (1532 - 1594), Christobal de Morales (ca.1500 - 1553), Giovanni da Palestrina (1525-1594) and Juan Vasquez (ca.1510 - 1560).

I. Parce mihi Domine.
The Parce mihi is the first Lesson out of the Office of the Dead and is set polychoral for SATBxSATB. The start of Choir-I is more imitative polyphonic to go further in a homophonic way and homophonic alternation between the two choirs. The text meaning and its potential expressiveness determine the music set by Garro. Word-painting is intensively used see for instance Ms. 25 and Ms. 26 in both choirs in ‘et subito illum’ with two eighth notes on ‘(su)bito’ and further Ms.63 and Ms. 44 in ‘in pulvere dormiam’ again two eighth notes on ‘(pul)vere’. The Lesson is set in 4/2, D-Dorian and consists out of 73 measures.

II. Responde Mihi.
This Responde mihi is the fourth lesson out of the Office of the Dead and is set polychoral for SATB x SATB. Choir-I is polyphonically imitative set in the start. Choir-II follows in a more homophonic way. Due to the text this Lesson is much more musically lively set by Garro compared to the Parce mihi Domine. The text meaning and its potential expressiveness determine the music set by Garro. A very interesting example of word-painting is found at the words ‘Contra folium, quod vento rapitur, ostendis potentiam tuam, et stipulam siccam persequeris’ Ms. 17- Ms. 26. The first and the last phrases of each choir of this sentence are set with very short but ascending eighth notes in all parts in Choir-I and descending eighth notes in all parts in Choir-II. The middle phrase as a contrast is set in a full tutti by both Choirs in a sonorous one, with long notes in Ms. 21-23/3 even with some closing quarter notes in Choir-II by Tenor to reach the C-Major in Ms.25. In the Choir-I Garro underlines ‘ Contra folium’ by voice pairing (TB and SA) and ‘folium’ even with four eighth notes but in ‘rapitur’ with eighths covering an ascending seventh in both Superius-I and Bassus-I. The Choir-II answers with quick notes in homophonic style but in ‘persequeris’ starting with in all parts descending eighths and ending with ascending eights in Altus-II and Tenor-II. At the end Ms. 57-59 in ‘tinea’ in Choir-II (Altus and Tenor) Garro sets long quarter notes figures to finish in 4/2, A-hypod. This Lesson consists out of 60 measures.

III. Spiritus Meus.
This Spiritus Meus is the seventh lesson out of the Office of the Dead and is set polychoral for SATB x SATB. The start in Choir-I is imitative polyphonic. Choir-II follows in a more homophonic way. Again the text meaning and its potential expressiveness determine the music set by Garro. Word-painting is found in Ms. 21 at the words ‘libera me’ in both choirs with three quarter notes in all parts. The following word-painting is the underling in Choir-I by Garro at the important words ‘dies mei’ in Ms. 29-31, answered in Choir-I in Ms. 33 at the words ‘cogitatio’ with four quarter notes in voice-pairing (SB and AT). At the words ‘Noctem verterunt in’ Ms. 39-40 Garro uses 3/2 tempus, triple time! Here starts another word-painting in a very long section ‘Noctem verterunt ---- stravi lectulum meum.’ After that triple time ‘in diem’ is set in 4/2 with long notes. ‘Si sustinuero, infernus domus mea’ is set in tutti but in a very dramatic even crying way. The words are not in a synchronic way but rhythmically in the same way but on different words in Ms. 48 (‘-fernus’ in Choir-I and ‘nuero infernus’ Choirs-II). This moving setting is followed again in 3/2 tempus, triple time Ms. 47-53 in tutti but in a close antiphonal repetition ending in D-Dorian. This setting of Spiritus Meus consists out of 75 measures and ends in E-Phrygian. Garro closes this Lesson with the words ‘et patientiam mea. [quis considerat?] Tu es Domine, Deus meus, in omitting ‘quis considerat’ placed between brackets by us and in adding ‘Tu es Domine, Deus meus’. If we compare this text with the setting of this Lesson by the South-Netherlandish Orlando di Lasso (1532-1594), uses Lassus the same text Garro did. Mind the enormous Key/chord changing, due to the moving text in this seventh Lesson. Of course it is a pity the Superius-I of Choir-I is lost but Dr. José Abreu wrote a reasonable substitution. These three lessons are found in several part-books sources (Coimbra, Braga and London) in Missae quatuor, octonis vocibus tres, & una duodenis; defunctorum lectiones tres, octonis vocibus; tria Alleluia, octonis etiam vocibus. [Lissabon, Pieter Graesbeeck] MDCIX.
Author:Wim Goossens
Text Parce mihi:
Parce mihi, Domine, nihil enim sunt dies mei.
Quid est homo, quia magnificas eum?
Aut quid apponis erga eum cor tuum?
Visitas eum diluculo et subito probas illum.
Usquequo non parcis mihi, nec dimittis me, ut glutiam salivam mea,
Peccavi, quid faciam tibi, o custos hominum?
Quare posuisti me contrarium tibi, et factus sum mihimet ipsi gravis?
Cur non tolles peccatum meum, et quare non aufers iniquitatem meam?
Ecce, nunc in pulvere dormiam, et si mane me quaesieris, non subsistam.

Spare me OI Lord; for my days are nothing.
What is man, that Thou shouldest magnify him?
and that Thou shouldest set thine heart upon him?
And that Thou shouldest visit him every morning, and try him every moment?
How long wilt Thou not depart from me, nor let me alone till I swallow down my spittle?
I have sinned; what shall I do unto Thee, O Thou preserver of men?
why hast Thou set me as a mark against thee, so that I am a burden to myself?
And why dost Thou not pardon my transgression, and take away my iniquity?
for now shall I sleep in the dust; and Thou shalt seek me in the morning, but I shall not be.

Text Responde Mihi

Responde mihi quantas habeo iniquitates et peccata,
scelera mea et delicta ostende mihi.
Cur faciem tuam abscondis et arbitraris me inimicum tuum?
Contra folium quid vento rapitur ostendis potentiam tuam,
et stipulam seccam persequeris?
Scribis enim contra me amaritudines
et consumere me vis peccatis adolescentiae meae,
posuisti in nervo pedem meum
et observasti omnes semitas meas et vestigia pedum meorum considerasti,
qui quasi putredo consumendus sum et quasi vestimentum quod comeditur a tinea.

Answer thou me, how great iniquities, and sins I have,
my wicked deeds, and my offences shew thou me.
Why hidest thou thy face and thinkest me thine enemy?
Against the leaf that is violently taken with the wind, thou shewest thy might,
and persecutest dry stubble.
For thou writest bitterness against me,
and wilt consume me with the sins of my youth.
Thou hast put my foot in band,
and hast observed all my paths, and hast considered the steps of my feet.
Who as rottenness am to be consumed, and as a garment that is eaten of the moth.

Tect: Spiritus Meus
Spiritus meus attenuabitur, dies mei breviabuntur, et solum mihi superest sepulchrum.
Non peccavi, et in amaritudinibus moratur oculus meus.
Libera me Dominue, et pone me iuxta te, et cuiusvis manus pugnet contra me.
Noctem verterunt in diem, et rursum post tenebras spero lucem.

Dies mei transierunt, cogitationes meæ dissipatæ sunt, torquentes cor meum:
Si sustinuero, infernus domus mea est, et in tenebris stravi lectulum meum.
Putredini dixi: Pater meus es, mater mea, et soror mea, vermibus.
Ubi est ergo nunc præstolatio mea, et patientiam mea [ quis considerat?]
Tu es Domine, Deus meus.

My spirit will be wasted, my days will be shortened, and only the grave will be left for me.
I have not sinned, yet my eye remains in bitterness.
Free me, O Lord, and set me beside you, and let the hand of anyone you wish fight against me.
My days have passed away; my thoughts have been scattered, tormenting my heart.

They have turned night into day, and I hope for light again after the darkness.
If I should wait, the underworld is my house, and in darkness I have spread out my bed.
I have said to decay and to worms: “You are my father, my mother, and my sister.”
Therefore, where is my expectation now, and who is it that [considers my patience?]
You are the Lord, My Lord.
Contributor:Wim Goossens