José de Torres y Martinez Bravo
1665 - 1738
Spain
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J. de Torres y
Martinez Bravo
Jose de Torres y Martinez Bravo (1665 - 04/06/1738), a Spanish composer, born and died in Madrid.
Source:Propylaën - Welt der Musik - Die Komponisten
José Torres y Martinez Bravo was born in Madrid in 1670 and he died in the same city in 1738. He started his musical career as a young child and joined the Royal chapel boys school in about 1680. In 1686 Bravo was already appointed as organist of the Royal Chapel of Madrid. During his life Bravo cultivated various facets of musical art: organist, editor and Maestro di Capella. Next to organist of the Chapel Royal of Madrid Bravo was in 1718 appointed Master of the Royal Chapel of Madrid. José Torres Bravo is one of the leading Spanish composers Baroque. He wrote an important treaty about the continuo playing: "General rules of accompanying organ, harpsichord and harp" Madrid, 1702. Bravo was the advocate of the Italian style of music in Spain, modernizing and Spanish music in the early eighteenth century. Bravo composed works for two or three choirs with orchestra in which the homophonic vocal texture reflected a feeling for polychoral writing - coro spezzato technique - typical of Spanish Baroque music. A lot of his works has been found in the New World, Mexico. He was a prolific composer, with Masses, Motets and psalm settings, Sequences, Antiphons, Hymns among others a Oficio de Difuntos in Missarum liber Madrid 1703, Villancios, Cantatas, and secular cantatas important theoretical works.
Author:Wim Goossens
Parce mihi Domine
Period:Baroque
Musical form:Motet for SATB and SATB a 8 vocibus inaequalium
Text/libretto:Latin Lectio I out of Officium Defunctorum
This motet Parce mihi Domine is the fully text of Lección primera/ first Lesson taken out of the Office of the Dead, Officium Defunctorum ad Matutinum. This lesson is published in liber Usualis (edition 1936) p. 1785.
This motet is set by José Torres y Martinez Bravo for double choir SATB and SATB con figured Basse continuo et Contrabajo. The text of this lesson is taken out of the Book of Job 7.d., verses 16 to 21.
In the Renaissance period composers have set parts or the whole Officium defunctorum we mention Giosoffo Zarlino (1517-1590), Giovanni Asola (c.1528-1609), Estêvâo de Brito (c.1570 - 1641), Lodovico da Viadana (1564 - 1627), Duarte Lôbo -Latin: Eduardus Lupus- (c.1565 - 1646), Marco da Gagliano (1582 - 1642), Giovanni Giacomo Gastoldi (c.1554 – 1622), Filipe de Magalhães (c.1571 – 1652), Sebastián de Vivanco (ca.1551 - 1622), Orlandus Lassus- (1532 - 1594), Christobal de Morales (c.1500 - 1553), Juan Vasquez (ca.1510 - 1560).
Bravo starts with imitative polyphonic style in coro I up to Ms. 7. After that follows coro II and José Torres y Martinez Bravo changes into the coro spezzato style in a homophonic way. Bravo continues this homophonic polychoral setting up tot the end. This motet consists out of 88 measures and is set in G-Dorian. This motet is published among others in Lira Sacro Hispana Siglo XVIII pages 13 to 22 out of M. Salazar Madrid 1852-1860.
Author:Wim Goossens
Parce mihi Domine
Parce mihi, Domine, nihil enim sunt dies mei.
Quid est homo, quia magnificas eum?
Aut quid apponis erga eum cor tuum?
Visitas eum diluculo et subito probas illum.
Usquequo non parcis mihi, nec dimittis me, ut glutiam salivam meam?

Secunda pars
Peccavi, quid faciam tibi, o custos hominum?
Quare posuisti me contrarium tibi, et factus sum mihimet ipsi gravis?
Cur non tolles peccatum meum, et quare non aufers iniquitatem meam?
Ecce, nunc in pulvere dormiam, et si mane me quaesieris, non subsistam.


Translation:
Spare me OI Lord; for my days are nothing.
What is man, that Thou should magnify him?
and that Thou should set thine heart upon him?
And that Thou should visit him every morning, and try him every moment?
How long wilt Thou not depart from me, nor let me alone till I swallow down my spittle?

Second part
I have sinned; what shall I do unto Thee, O Thou preserver of men?
why hast Thou set me as a mark against thee, so that I am a burden to myself?
And why dost Thou not pardon my transgression, and take away my iniquity?
for now shall I sleep in the dust; and Thou shalt seek me in the morning, but I shall not be.
Contributor:Wim Goossens
Taedet animam meam
Period:Baroque
Musical form:Motet for SATB and SATB a 8 vocibus inaequalium
Text/libretto:Latin Lectio II out of Officium Defunctorum
The sentiment of penitence is expressed in this motet on a text from the Lectio secunda de Officium Defunctorum ad Matutinum, second Lesson at Matins of Office of the Dead. See the Liber Usualis (edition 1936) page 1786. The official Latin wording is “Taedet” but in the manuscript written “Tedet”. Thera are more Latin failures in the manuscript which we will indicate between brackets [] in the text below.
This motet is set by José Torres y Martinez Bravo for double choir SATB and SATB con figured Basso continuo et Contrabajo. The text of this lesson is taken out of the Book Job chapter 10 verse 1 to 7.
In the Renaissance period composers have set parts or the whole Officium defunctorum so did Baroque composers. Bravo starts with imitative polyphonic style in coro I which will be continued in coro II sometimes Bravo use paired imitation. Sometimes Bravo uses coro spezzato style (Ms. 39-44, Ms. 50-55) and even more homophonic style (MS. 39-44, Ms. 50-55, Ms. 64-68).
This motet consists out of 107 measures and is set in E-Aeolian. In the same publication mentioned we noticed an elegy for SSAT on the Death of Charles the II King of Spain “a la muerte de Carlos II Rey de España who died in 1700. But has unfortunately not any sign of Requiem Music. This motet Taedet animam meam is published among others in Lira Sacro Hispana Siglo XVIII pages 23 to 34 out of M. Salazar Madrid 1852-1860.
Author:Wim Goossens
Taedet animan meam
T[a]edet anima[m] mea[m] vitae meae; dimi[t]tam adversum me eloquium meum, loquar in amaritudine animae meae.
Dicam Deo: Noli me condemnare; Indica mihi cur me ita judices.
Numquid bonum tibi videtur, si calumnieris me, et opprimas me opus manuum tuarum, et consilium impiorum adjuves?
Numquid oculi carnei tibi sunt? Aut sicut videt homo, et tu videbis?
Numquid sicut dies hominis dies tui, et anni tui sicut humana sunt tempora,
ut quaeras iniquitatem meam, et peccatum meum scruteris,
et scias quia nihil impium fecerim, cum sit nemo qui de manu tua po[s]sit eruere.

Translation
My soul is weary of my life; I will leave my complaint upon myself; I will speak in the bitterness of my soul.
I will say unto God, do not condemn me; shew me wherefore thou contends with me.
Is it good unto thee that thou should oppress, that thou should despise the work of thine hands, and shine upon the counsel of the wicked?
Hast thou eyes of flesh? or see thou as man seen?
Are thy days as the days of man? are thy years as man's days,
That thou enquire after mine iniquity, and search after my sin?
Thou know that I am not wicked; and there is none that can deliver out of thine hand.
Contributor:Wim Goossens
Versa est in luctum
Period:Baroque
Composed in:1703
Musical form:Motet à 4 vocibus
Text/libretto:Latin Officium Defunctorum
Duration:1’57”
Label(s):G 49064
Versa est in Luctum is a plainchant from the Responsorium de Officium Defunctorum Responsory from Matins of the Dead and is set by José Torrers y Martinez Bravo in a motet for four voices (SATB). This Versa est in luctum is an old Responsorium and even used – most in the Iberian peninsula - and set by for instance by Francisco de Peñalosa (c.1470-1528), Alonso Lobo (c.1535-1617), Tomás Luis de Victoria (1548-1611), Sebastián de Vivanco (c.1550-1622), Estêvão Lopes Morago (c.1575-1630), Juan Gutiérrez de Padilla (c.1590-1664), Juan Miquel Marqués (1600-1699). Those settings from “Versa est in luctum” have to be considered as an Iberian inheritance. Although out of the Iberian we saw Versa est in luctum settings by the Italian Alexandro Grandi (1586-1630), Andrea Rota (1553-1597), Anselmo di Facio (1590-1610) and by the Netherlandish Gerard Dericke ( 1540-1580), who worked in UK. There are about 138 Responsoria de Officium Defunctorum known and used during centuries in the Office of the Dead. They are all well-ordered. The Versa est in Luctum is Respond no . 95. To this Repond belongs Versicle nr. 43 Cutis mea. The text is from the book of Job and has become in certain European regions a Respond in the Office of the Dead. This variation of the Respond is found with some introductions in two Offices of the Dead in Lyon and in Otto of Riedenburg’s Pontifical. And from there it is spread into Europe. The text Versa est in luctum was not a direct part of the traditional Spanish liturgy but much more an extra-liturgical motet during the Obsequies of very important dignitaries of State or Church. Bravo uses in accordance with the Iberian tradition the short text. The text of this motet used is known and are verses from the book Job XXX, 31, VII, 16 an XXX. The text and music of this motet Versa est in luctum are penitential in feeling. As we saw in Rota’s version Bravo did not use the belonging Versicle and did not use the repetition of the last part of the Respond, but that’s in accordance with Iberian tradition as we mentioned before. He works in the short style of his Iberian colleagues. The not used text is placed by us between brackets see below.
José Torres y Martinez Bravo starts this motet in a polyphonic (SATB) imitative style. Bravo starts in descending and ascending lines with Alto (descending: d-c-bes) followed by Tenor (ascending g-a-bes), Bajo (descending d-c-bes) and Tiple (ascending g-a-bes). That’s contrary to his coro sepzzato approach in his Missa defunctorum ad exequias Ludovici Primi Regis. To express his feelings Bravo uses in this motet more flats and sharps to underline the text. Only the “Parce mihi Domine”( Ms. 52-56) setting is chordal and harmonically oriented, with all consecutive minor chords! This motet consists out of 70 measures and starts and ends in G-Dorian.
This setting by Bravo is published in his Missarum liber, Madrid 1703 and published too in Lira Sacra Hispaña XVIII.
Author:Wim Goossens
Text:
R. Versa est in luctum cithara mea et organum meum in vocem flentium. Parce mihi, Domine, nihil enim sunt dies mei.
[V. Cutis mea denigrate est super me et ossa mea aruerunt.]
[Utinam appenderentur peccata mea,]
[Quibus iram merui et calamitas quam patio in statera.]

Translation:
R. My harp is tuned for lamentation and my organ into the voice of those who weep. Spare me Lord, for my days are as nothing.
[V. My skin is black upon me and my bones are dried up.]
[O that my sins, whereby I have deserved wrath]
[And the calamity that I suffer, were weighed in balance.]
Contributor:Wim Goossens
Missa defunctorum
Period:Baroque
Composed in:1703
Musical form:Missa à 4 vocibus inaequalium
Text/libretto:Latin from the Missa pro Defunctis
This Missa defunctorum consists out of the following movements:

- Introito - Requiem aeternam
- Kyrie - Kyrie, Christe, Kyrie
- Tractus - Requiem aeternam
- Offertorio - Domine Jesu Christe
- Sanctus - Sanctus y Benedictus
- Agnus Dei - Agnus Dei
- Responso - Versa est in luctum
- Communio - Lux Aeterna

José Torres y Martinez Bravo sets a first Missa Defunctorum in about 1703 for SATB a cappella. In the most movements Bravo starts with the belonging plainchant (in Introito, Tracto, Offertorio and Communio). In between Bravo uses too the belonging plainchant (see the Introito). The style is contrary to the 1724/1725 Missa defunctorum more imitative polyphonic style. Some movements ( Introito, Kyrie, Tractus, Offertotio, and Responso) are published too in the Lira Sacro Hispana Siglio XVIII, premer tomo, page 1 up to 12. Further this Missa is published and found among others in Puebla Catedral music Archiv, in Palencia, Catedral San Antolin, Archivo de Musica , Folio 102-112, out of Missarum liber, ad usum sanctarum ecclesiarum utillissimus in quo continentur octo missae ex quibus quinque sunt quatuor vocum, alia quinque vo cum, alia sexvocum, & ultima deffunctorum, & etiam asperssorium per annum, & tempore paschali, a iosepho de torres, matritensi, uno ex primus regiae capellae organedis, in cantinelae formam redactus, maiestati catholicae serenissimi domini, do mini nostri, d. philippi quinti, hispaniarum, atque indiarum regis potentissimi, dicatus et consecratus ab author cum privilegio: matriti: ex Typographia musicae, anno MDCCIII.
Author:Wim Goossens
Defunctorum ad exequias Ludovici Primi Regis mass
Period:Baroque
Composed in:1724
Musical form:Missa à 8 vocibus inaequalium
Text/libretto:Latin from the Missa pro Defunctis
Duration:31'08
In memory of:King Louis of Spain (1707-1724)
Label(s):Discan DCD/165
SEdeM 6
This Defunctorum ad exequias Ludovici Primi Regis mass might have been written in 1724 for the death of King Louis of Spain (25/08/1707 – 31/08/1724).
Source:Propylaën - Welt der Musik - Die Komponisten, booklet of cd Discan DCD/165
Contributor:Tassos Dimitriadis
This Misa de Defunctorum consists out of the following movements:

- Introito - Requiem aeternam 06’02”
- Kyrie - Kyrie, Christe, Kyrie 02’53”
- Sequentia - Dies Irae 08’03”
- Offertorio - Domine Jesu Christe 04’04”
- Sanctus - Sanctus y Benedictus 01’28”
- Agnus Dei - Agnus Dei 03’16”
- Responso - Versa est in luctum 02‘47“
- Communio - Lux Aeterna 03’23”

This Missa defunctorum is written by the passing away of the very young King Louis I (1707-1724 of Spain). José de Torres y Martinez Bravo sets this brilliant Missa defunctorum for Double Choir, SSAT and SATB, further with full orchestra: 2 Ob, 2 vn, va. vc, figured basso continuo and organ. Beside several vocal soloists, 2 Soprano, Contraltus and Tenor.
In 1725 there is another edition issued of this Missa defunctorum for Double Choir SSAT and SATB, full orchestra, 2fl, 2 tpt, 2vn, va, vc and figured basso continuo (organ).
This baroque music is distributed between the 2 choirs, full orchestra and vocal soloists. This Missa defunctorum is a fusion between text and music in a continuous advance of accumulated energy and executed and closes with a full ensemble of double choirs, orchestra and soloists of great serenity, deeply moving and sadly mourning.
This Missa defunctorum ad exequias Ludovici Primi Regis is stored in the Patrimonio Nacional de Madrid.
Author:Wim Goossens
Picture Picture
King Louis of Spain
(dedicatee)